Climate change provides centrepiece of Programme for Government

Ending Scotland’s contribution to climate change, delivering on the economy and building a fairer country were the central themes of this year’s Programme for Government, announced by First Minister Nicola Sturgeon in Parliament today (3rd September).

The programme, entitled Protecting Scotland’s Future, includes 14 new bills as well as a raft of non-legislative announcements

Following the First Minister’s acknowledgement of a global climate emergency earlier this year at the SNP Conference, the Programme for Government set out the Scottish Government’s next steps to tackle climate change, including a landmark investment of more than £500 million to improve bus infrastructure across the country to encourage more people to use public transport.

The First Minister also announced plans to decarbonise Scotland’s railways by 2035 through the continued electrification of the network, as well as battery-powered trains and exploring the potential of hydrogen-powered trains. It also proposes making the Highlands and Islands the world’s first net zero aviation region by 2040.

She also confirmed the first wave of schools to be built or refurbished through a new £1 billion school investment programme will be announced later this month and an extra £15 million will be provided to help improve additional support for learning.

An additional £20 million of funding will help tackle the public health emergency of drug deaths in Scotland. The Child Payment, which will benefit low income families with young children by £500 each year, will now be introduced by Christmas 2020 – ahead of the original schedule.

Other measures include:

  • a ‘Green New Deal’, harnessing the power of the Scottish National Investment Bank and creating a £3 billion package of investments to attract green finance to Scotland
  • an additional £17m to support the demand for ultra-low emission vehicles (ULEVs)
  • develop regulations so that new homes from 2024 must use renewable or low carbon heat
  • targeting a minimum of £30 million of support for renewable heat projects
  • making the first Job Start Payments in spring 2020
  • putting in place a Women’s Health Plan to tackle women’s heath inequalities
  • continuing to support mental health, with a 24/7 crisis support service for children and young people and their families, a community wellbeing service enabling self-referral for children and young people and a £5 million investment in a community perinatal mental health service across Scotland
  • taking forward planning to mitigate the worst consequences of a ‘no deal’ Brexit

The First Minister also confirmed the Referendums Bill will go forward this year and that the Scottish Government will ask, during the passage of the Bill, for the transfer of power to hold an independence referendum within this term of Parliament.

Bills for introduction in 2019-20:

  • Animal Health and Welfare (Amendment) Bill – will increase the maximum penalties for the most serious animal welfare offences to five years imprisonment and/or an unlimited fine.
  • Budget Bill – Annual legislation which provides parliamentary approval for the Scottish government’s spending plans and allocation of resources.
  • Circular Economy Bill – includes encouraging re-use of products and resource waste. It will allow charges to be applied to single-use coffee cups.
  • Civil Partnership Bill – will make civil partnerships available to mixed-sex couples in Scotland.
  • Continuity Bill – provides ability to maintain alignment with EU law in devolved areas after Brexit.
  • Defamation and Malicious Publications Bill – will simplify and modernise the law of defamation.
  • Uefa European Championship Bill – ahead of Glasgow’s participation as a host city in the Uefa European Football Championships in 2020, the bill will prohibit ticket touting and make provisions to protect commercial interests.
  • Forensic Medical Services (Victims of Sexual Offences) Bill – will aim to improve services for victims of sexual offences, including ensuring their cases are handled more effectively by the justice and healthcare systems.
  • Good Food Nation Bill – introduces a statutory framework as part of efforts to promote healthier and more sustainable local produce.
  • Hate Crime Bill – consolidates and updates existing hate crime legislation.
  • Heat Networks Bill – brings regulation of the heat network sector to support, facilitate and create controls in development of district and communal heating infrastructure in Scotland.
  • Redress (Survivors of In Care Abuse) Bill – establishes a financial redress scheme for survivors of historical child abuse whilst in care in Scotland.
  • Rural Support Bill – introduces regulation-making powers for Scottish ministers to amend or replace the EU Common Agricultural Policy elements of retained EU law.
  • Transient Visitor Levy Bill – creates a discretionary power for local authorities to apply a tax or levy on overnight visitor stays.

Alex Orr is Managing Director of Orbit Communications


Housing Scotland’s People: The future of housing in Scotland

Housing event cover image

Last year, the Scottish Government released a discussion paper entitled “Housing beyond 2021”, the aim being to develop a vision for 2040 for the whole housing system and an accompanying routemap with key milestones along the way to achieving that vision.

The paper begins by recalling the Scottish Government’s housing and regeneration outcomes and these help to define some of the key themes explored in the paper.

Five of the key themes identified by the discussion paper are:

  • Demographic change;
  • Affordability and supply;
  • Sustainability;
  • Quality; and
  • Fuel poverty.

Let’s look at current and future trends in relation to these five themes and then consider some of the key challenges and opportunities these pose for communications in the housing sector, both now and in the years ahead.


Scotland’s population is projected to age as it rises over the next 20+ years.

While forward projections up to 2041 forecast a net decline in the number of people in Scotland aged 0-24, 25-44 and 45-64, the number of people aged 65-74 is forecast to rise by 12.6% while the number of people in Scotland aged 75 and over is predicted to rise by 69.4% between 2019 and 2041.

This means that, while the overall population of Scotland is predicted to rise by 223,000 over that 22 year period, there will be almost 400,000 people aged 65 and older living in Scotland by 2041.

Demographics (003)

Size of households

At the same time, the average size of a household in Scotland is shrinking. It fell by 5% between 2001 and 2017. This decline can partly be attributed to a fragmentation of the traditional nuclear family and a corresponding rise in couples with children living apart and single parent households. But as life expectancy increases, we’re also seeing more people living independently for longer. If that trend continues into the future, this will create further pressures on the housing sector and even more demand for a greater supply of homes.

Household size

New housing supply

At the same time, there is a general consensus that we are not building enough homes in Scotland to meet even current demands. While the number of new homes being built has steadily increased over the past six years, rates of new house building are still a long way below the annual rates consistently recorded prior to the 2008 recession.

For instance, in 2017-18, 17,766 new homes were completed compared to around 25,000 units completed annually prior to 2008.


Housing tenures

 Levels of home ownership in Scotland have remained relatively constant over the past 15 years, fluctuating between 60 and 65% of all housing. We have seen a marginal decline in the percentage of the population in the social rented sector over that same period, down from 26% to 22%.

By far the biggest shift in tenures has been the percentage of the Scottish population living in the private rented sector. This has climbed from 6% in 2003 to 15% in 2017.

This is the phenomenon known as “generation rent”, the rise of the private sector being largely attributable to a younger generation who simply cannot afford to buy their own home.



 The main, relatively blunt tool we have to measure the energy performance of Scotland’s housing stock in the Energy Performance Certificate which classifies homes according to a series of energy efficiency bands.

Specifically in relation to existing stock, a key focus for the Scottish Government has been to drive up the energy efficiency of the social rented sector. The Energy Efficiency Standard for Social Housing (EESSH) seeks to eliminate properties below Band D from the social rented sector by 2020.

There has been some progress since EESSH was first launched with the number of social sector homes falling below Band D falling from 66,000 in 2014 to 43,000 in 2017. However, although we are on the right path, the rate of progress will need to accelerate significantly for the 2020 target to be met.

Looking further ahead, the Scottish Government has already floated proposals for EESSH2 with the aim of maximising attainment of Band B in the social sector by 2032. Given that only 3% of social sector housing – and indeed all housing in Scotland – currently meets Band B or better, that longer term target is an extremely ambitious one.



 The Scottish Housing Quality Standard (SHQS) was first introduce in 2004. According to the standard, housing stock should be energy efficient, be safe and secure, not be seriously damaged and be equipped with kitchens and bathrooms in good condition.

The SHQS was subsequently incorporated into the Scottish Social Housing Charter in April 2012 with the aim that all social housing stock should pass the standard by April 2015. Unfortunately, by the end of 2017-18, there were still 30,000 social rented properties that did not pass.

More widely, across all tenures, as of 2017, there were still almost 1 million properties in Scotland that failed to meet the standard. That provides a telling indication of how much more progress still needs to be made.


Fuel poverty

 The number of households in fuel poverty has been declining in recent years. However, as of 2017, there were still 613,000 households across Scotland defined as being in fuel poverty including 174,000 in extreme fuel poverty.

The Fuel Poverty (Target, Definition and Strategy) (Scotland) Bill is currently passing through the Scottish Parliament and sets a headline target that no more than 5% of Scottish households should be in fuel poverty by 2040. This is a higher ambition than a target originally proposed that no more than 10% of Scottish households should be in fuel poverty by that date. Nonetheless, the policy continues to face criticism from campaigners who question why the target is not to completely eradicate fuel poverty in Scotland by 2040.

Fuel Poverty

Housing communications: What are the future challenges and opportunities?

  1. The demographic challenge

An ageing population and fragmentation in the size of households pose significant duel challenges for the housing sectors, creating even more pressure to increase the supply of new housing while also creating new challenges around the changing type and mix of housing Scotland actually needs.

  1. The high expectations of policymakers

Whether in terms of combating climate change, making the transition to a low carbon economy, achieving greater energy efficiency or improving health outcomes, the housing sector is being challenged like never before and there is an expectation that housing across all tenures should be part of the solution in addressing each of these major policy issues.

This creates challenges around how to communicate with policymakers in a way that successfully manages their expectations as to what the housing sector can realistically achieve.

  1. Increasing costs of compliance

 Connected to the challenge of managing expectations, as deadlines for meeting targets draw closer, the cost of bringing remaining housing stock up to the standard, be that in terms of energy efficiency or quality, inevitably creeps up, to the point where it may no longer be cost-effective to make those remaining properties compliant.

At the same time, as the Scottish Government’s discussion paper points out, 80% of the homes that will be in use in 2050 have already been built so there is a large onus on retrofitting those existing properties to be able to meet future targets. Yet the process of retrofitting existing properties is often that much more costly and challenging – and the challenges can be particularly great for properties located in more remote areas of the country.

  1. Measuring success

 How we manage and measure compliance is also changing and there is a challenge around futureproofing against the introduction of future technologies and shifting or conflicting policy goals.

For instance, replacing inefficient electric storage heaters with efficient modern gas-fired boilers will undoubtedly have a positive impact on bringing down fuel bills, improving energy efficiency and tackling fuel poverty. But what about longer term goals around climate change and the transition to a low carbon economy with reduced reliance on fossil fuels? Moving to gas-fired boilers builds in an ongoing reliance on fossil fuels which potentially contradicts that longer term aspiration. This is just one example of how shifting technologies and policy priorities mean that the ways in which we measure success are also shifting.

  1. A successful cross tenure approach

Keeping in mind the projection that 80% of properties in use in 2050 have already been built, there is a realisation that improvements to the existing built environment will have to bear a major share of the burden when it comes to meeting future targets – and that needs to include all tenures of housing.

However, the Scottish Government inevitably tends to focus policy interventions on the social housing sector since this is an area where it can exert most direct influence. Even in the area of new housing, the Scottish Government has more direct influence over the supply of new social sector homes through its Affordable Housing Supply Programme than is the case for new private sector housing.

However, when it comes to the majority of existing housing that continue to be owner-occupied, policymakers have tended to rely on the carrot of incentives to drive positive consumer behaviour rather than the stick of legally binding targets – but with at best mixed success. For instance, the Green Deal pursued by the Conservative/Liberal Democrat UK Government coalition has limited success in encouraging owner occupiers to invest more in making their homes more energy efficient.

  1. Are public aspirations realistic?

A 2017 survey shows that 83% of the Scottish population aspired to be home owners, that 12% aspired to live in social rented accommodation and only 3% aspired to live in the private rented sector. Unfortunately, these aspirations don’t necessarily reflect the overall mix of housing currently available.

There is a challenge here to look at ways of making renting more attractive. But it also suggests that people tend not to think long-term when it comes to the type of housing they aspire to live in. We need to do more to encourage people to think about their future housing needs: i.e. what type of housing will they need when they become older and start to become less mobile, for instance? Encouraging people to think longer term about their own housing journey is also really important.

  1. The growing need for joined-up policymaking

 We are seeing an increasing crossover between different policies in the housing sector. For instance, there is an obvious synergy between measures to improve energy efficiency and tackling fuel poverty.

Probably the biggest opportunity for policies to work together is the intersection between future housing, transport and energy policies. As homes become more self-reliant when it comes to generating energy and opportunities emerge through electrification of transport to transfer energy between your home and your car, so it will be increasingly important for the policy frameworks governing these different sectors to work in a coordinated fashion – and herein lies both an important opportunity and a key challenge for the future.

  1. New methods of communication

 With new technologies, the changing way in which we communicate and consume information also creates new challenges for those working in the housing sector – whether that’s in terms of private housebuilders interacting with the house-buying public or social and private landlords interacting with their tenants. The expectations of housing consumers are rightfully increasing and those in the business of housing in all of its different forms need to adapt how they communicate accordingly.

Alex Bruce is a Director of Orbit Communications.

Take steps to make this Monday a little less Blue


Today as many will be aware is ‘Blue Monday’, reported to be the most depressing day of the year.

Falling on the third Monday of January, the term was first coined in 2005 and has since been used to denote the sense of fatigue that lingers at the start of the year. The concept is said to have taken-root in the national psyche thanks to a travel company press release aimed at inspiring people to purchase a holiday in order to stave off the so-called January blues.

It is based on a hypothetical formula that combines a range of factors — including weather conditions, debt levels and failing resolutions like broken diet plans — since the start of the new year.

Post the festive rush and excitement of Christmas, and as employees shuffle back to the daily grind in gloomy weather and credit card bills loom, reality often comes crashing down around us. Such an intense change in a short period of time from December to January has the propensity to impact a person’s psychological state, knocking them into depression.

Putting aside that there is no real scientific evidence to back today as being ‘Blue Monday’, use it to start a process to lift your mood and turn any day into a great day.

Some top tips you may want to use include:

Get moving — lots of people struggle to get exercise into their day however exercise is proven to release endorphins which naturally make your feel happier. It doesn’t have to be lots of exercise, but simply getting outside for a 20 minute walk today at lunchtime.

Plan to do something your enjoy today — perhaps tonight plan to watch a favourite film, spend some time on a hobby you enjoy or spend time with friends and family.

Have a word with yourself! — focus on all the things you are grateful for and want more of in your life, not the negative. As you go about your day, stop and notice 5 things you are grateful for. As soon as you start to focus on being grateful you’ll find your mood improves and the more you look for, the more you find.

Look after you! — eat foods you know help you feel energised, have a lovely bath to relax, get an early night to re-charge or perhaps plan something nice for later in the year, something you can look forward to.

Above all, have a great day!



Blogging and the rise of the micro-influencer

miro influencer image

Let me take you back a decade. A journalism student sits in a tutorial as the lecturer discusses a very pressing and modern issue facing the profession: “is the weblog a threat to traditional journalism?”

Weblog. How many young bloggers today even know that is what the word “blog” is short for? Back when the full term was still in use, I was writing essays on whether bloggers would overthrow journalists to become the principal news reporters and commentators as people looked towards other sources of news.

Fast forward ten years and things haven’t turned out exactly as predicted. While there has indeed been an increase in alternative news websites (admittedly not all of them telling the truth with fake news being shared indiscriminately across social media), many of us still look to established media outlets (albeit their websites increasingly more than their print editions) for updates on what’s happening in the world around us. But for feature writers, it could be argued that bloggers and social media influencers are indeed challengers with an increasing number and variety of brands turning to them to spread the word about their goods.

From food and drink products to tourist attractions, fashion accessories to cultural events, I’ve worked on PR campaigns in these areas that have targeted bloggers and influencers as much as journalists. Even a finance client once asked me to engage with vloggers to promote the value of their offering to students. Bloggers are now rubbing shoulders with journalists at press previews and launch events, high-end lifestyle influencers are being chased by luxury brands desperate to be connected to them and niche hobbyists tweeting or instagramming about their pastime are being sent samples by brands looking for an endorsement.

While it seems that everyone is keen to get in with bloggers and influencers and are prepared to pay for it wherever necessary, it is worth considering that the recently published PRCA Digital PR and Communications Report 2018 found that budgets in the areas of blogger outreach and social influencer outreach have decreased by 9% and 12% respectively. The cut in budgets isn’t necessarily down to a decrease in blogger and influencer engagement activity or a lack of client confidence in the area but instead could be attributed to a rise in the so-called “micro influencer”.

Micro-influencers are influencers with a smaller number of online followers than their big-name counterparts (around 10,000 followers or sometimes even less). They don’t charge as much for their services usually because blogging isn’t their fulltime job – sometimes even just a few freebies of your product will suffice. A smaller number of followers means that these micro-influencers are more likely to be engaging directly with them, finding time to respond to comments and building up stronger trust and relationships. The fact that micro-influencers are more contactable and relatable is the key and therefore when their followers see them talking positively about a brand or product, they are more likely to listen and understand why they would like it too.

So, while bloggers haven’t become the hardcore news reporters predicted in my university journalism seminars, relentlessly seeking the truth and reporting the facts to the masses, they have become an integral part of PR campaigns in certain sectors. For many of Orbit’s clients though, the audiences that matter are still reading and listening to the established media outlets or trade publications associated with their fields. This is likely to remain an important part of the work PRs do for a long time to come. But if your brand has a product to sell to a specific consumer then engaging with relevant micro-influencers and bloggers to be featured on their channels can be a powerfully effective PR and marketing tool.

sarah mooney
Sarah Mooney, Account Manager


PRCA Digital PR and Communications Report 2018

Last week I had the pleasure of taking part in an event organised by PRCA Scotland to mark the launch of their new report on Digital PR.  The report itself was remarkable for the insight it provided on dwindling in-house staff resources for social media activity, contrasted with the realisation amongst that paid-for content is now the only realistic way to achieve a real impact on social media.  The latter is certainly something that Orbit and other consultancies have been trying to convince clients of for some time.

Graeme Downie, Orbit Director
Graeme Downie, Orbit Director

For me, whilst the information in the report will undoubtedly shape way in which Orbit engage with Digital PR in the future, particularly around content creation, the thing which struck me most was the need to remember that Digital PR is only likely to be effective by not forgetting some other communications basics at the same time.  Specifically, that the purpose of any campaign must be clear from the start and well-planned with clear messages and measurements of success.  Only then can a PR team ensure that each lever pulled to the right extent, at the right time, with the right content and, crucially, targeted at the right audience to meet whatever the objectives agreed at the outset were.

There is undoubtedly more work to be done by consultancies and in-house teams on how to use the new tools we have at our disposal but we must also ensure that they are used in-line with fundamental principles of engagement to ensure that we deliver the outcomes not only that our clients want, but the ones that will help them drive the goals and objectives of their wider business.

Finally, I would like to thank my fellow speakers, Thom Watt and Ruth Lee for certainly adding to my own knowledge and education around the future of Digital channels and how they can be put to best use in the future.



2018 Programme for Government: Priorities and Politics


etienne-girardet-360004-unsplash (002)

Earlier this month, we jointly hosted the latest in a regular series of roundtable events in central London with our colleagues at SCDI. The focus of the latest event was the Scottish Government’s 2018 Programme for Government and implications for the Scottish business community.

Unveiled by the First Minister on the 4th September, the Scottish Government’s 2018 Programme for Government focuses on a number of key economic priorities. These include helping Scotland to make the transition to a low carbon economy, investing in Scotland’s infrastructure, protecting the Scottish economy from the perceived negative effects of Brexit and encouraging more Scottish businesses to export goods and services in larger volumes.

Featured prominently among the ‘low carbon’ headlines: A commitment to invest £15 million in the installation of 1,500 electric vehicle charging points, a substantial increase in low-carbon transport loans and ultra-low emission vehicles in public sector fleets, a reconfirmation of a commitment that Scotland will become a carbon neutral country by 2050 and action on plastic waste including the setting up of a deposit return scheme and a ban on plastic-stemmed cotton buds.

On the infrastructure front, the programme includes a commitment to close the infrastructure investment gap between Scotland and other G7 countries by the end of the current parliament, a £7 billion increase in investment over current plans. Also unveiled with much fanfare was a proposal to set up a new Scottish National Investment Bank, providing ‘patient finance for ambitious companies’.

Following the recent defeat by a unified front of Holyrood’s opposition parties of John Swinney’s proposal to introduce standardised Primary 1 assessments, education is likely to continue to be a major political battleground during the year to come.

11 years since first taking power, opposition parties are keen to portray the SNP minority administration as one that has run out of steam and ideas.  They also point to the 15 bills introduced as part of the 2017 programme, of which only two have so far passed into law. The Conservatives in particular accuse the Scottish Government of pursuing an ‘anti-business’ agenda and are likely to set out their stall on that front with attacks on taxation policy and perhaps also the least popular aspects of the Barclay review of non-domestic rates. They have also greeted proposals for a Scottish National Investment Bank with a large degree of scepticism.

Meanwhile, Labour has made clear its intention to outflank the SNP on the left, accusing the Scottish Government of lacking ambition or the radical vision needed to tackle inequality.

The Greens, having brokered agreements with the SNP over the past two years since the 2016 election to allow the annual budget bill to pass, have declared they will not countenance entering negotiations this year unless the Scottish Government shows real commitment to meaningful reform of local taxation. Finding any kind of majority consensus on a replacement for the council tax has eluded the SNP before and they are unlikely to want to go down that road again, which may mean that they cast about for another partner to get this year’s budget through.

The Lib Dems perhaps? They accuse the Scottish Government of administrative ‘meddling’ on education and have shown an ongoing commitment to campaign hard on issues including mental health. Their campaign priorities might point the way to potential grounds for a Scottish budget deal this year.

Clearly, this year’s programme for government has been unveiled against the backdrop of Brexit and the prospect of a potential second referendum on Scottish independence. On the latter, Nicola Sturgeon continues to play a waiting game and has urged party activists to be patient. Initially lukewarm on the idea for fear of creating an unhelpful precedent for Indyref2, the First Minister has latterly expressed her support for a so-called ‘People’s Vote’ on the final Brexit deal.

Although polling around various Brexit scenarios currently shows only a modest shift in opinion towards independence, it is still possible that Scottish public opinion could shift much more radically in the event of a hard Brexit or a no-deal scenario actually happening.

The political arithmetic of Brexit and Indyref2 in Scotland remains complex. For instance, almost a third of Scots who voted Yes to independence in the 2014 referendum went on to back Leave in the 2016 EU referendum. This goes a long way to explaining why, fearful of splitting the Yes movement ahead of any second independence referendum, the First Minister has been so deliberately vague about the process for an independent Scotland potentially rejoining the EU. Would this require a further referendum for instance?

The SNP also face another paradox in that the seemingly easiest route to independence might lie in Brexit going ahead but then proving to have a disastrous impact on Scotland’s economy. That scenario could do fatal damage to the case for the Union between Scotland and the rest of the UK continuing and arguably do the most to bolster the case for independence. This raises questions within SNP circles as to how actively they should be campaigning to stop Brexit from happening when going through with it could provide the best chance of building majority support for independence in Scotland.

With so much political uncertainty currently in the air, there appears to be no prospect of a second independence referendum taking place very soon – despite all of the pressure being placed on Nicola Sturgeon from her activist base, she remains pragmatic and very much alive to the risks of calling a referendum too soon.

A lot will hinge on what actually comes to pass on the 29th March next year, the official deadline for the UK formally leaving the EU. With much of the talk at Westminster currently focused on prolonged transition periods, it may yet take a lot longer for the Brexit fog to clear. Whatever the outcome, it seems likely that the timing of Indyref2 will continue to be fraught with challenges. Brexit is also likely to continue to dominate political debate at Holyrood as much as at Westminster – all of which could hamper progress on this year’s Programme for Government and mean that the backlog of un-passed legislation in the Scottish Parliament gets even longer.

Alex Bruce, Orbit Director